Type 2 Diabetes is due to dysfunction of the pancreas in your body.
People with Type 2 Diabetes risk different health problems like high blood sugar levels, heart diseases, kidney diseases, etc.
Pancrease produces bile to aid digestion as well as 2 hormones insulin and glucagon.
Both of the hormones regulate blood sugar level, or the level of glucose, lipids, and proteins.
Insulin is responsible for carbohydrates metabolism. fat metabolism, protein metabolism as well as growth.
However, glucagons affect the metabolism of glucose.
They contribute to counterbalance the actions of insulin in your body.
Moreover, glucagon signals your liver and muscle cells to change the stored glucagons onto glucose and release energy.
Glucose is a nutrient that provides energy to your brain, retina, and germinal epithelium of the gonads.
This is a detailed guide on the causes, symptoms, and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Keep on reading to learn more.
When the process of regulation of blood sugar level in your body does not work properly, it can lead to rising or fall in blood sugar levels.
It can cause diabetes and is a chronic disease.
When you are diabetic or pre-diabetic, then your body would use all produced insulin and glucagon in higher or lower concentrations.
The two types of diabetes are Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes or Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus is due to a decrease in the sensitivity of target tissues to the metabolic effect of insulin.
This insulin sensitivity is also termed Insulin Resistance.
Due to changes in the metabolism. blood glucose concentration increases cell utilization of glucose lowers and the utilization of proteins and fats increases, according to the American Diabetes.
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Resistance to Metabolic Effects of Insulin
Type 2 diabetes affects people worldwide and is accountable for almost 90 to 95% of all diabetes cases.
Moreover, it can affect people of age 30 years, often between the ages of 50 and 60.
Doctors often refer to it as adult-onset diabetes.
People with type 2 diabetes often risk developing health problems like:
- increase in blood sugar levels
- heart diseases
- kidney diseases, etc for the long term.
According to recent studies, even younger people are now developing these diseases because of obesity or excess fat.
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Characteristics of People with Type 2 Diabetes
People with Type 2 Diabetes shows the following clinical features according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney diseases :
- Features: Type 2
- Age at onset: usually greater than 30 years
- Body mass: visceral obesity
- Plasma glucose: increased
- Plasma glucagons: high, resistance to suppression
- Therapy: weight loss metformin, sulfonylurea
- Insulin sensitivity: reduced
- Plasma insulin: normal to high initially
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Signs and Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly, that is why is often called a slow killer.
You can have it and be unaware of its presence.
The signs and symptoms are frequent urination, an increase in hunger, fatigue, and an increase in thirst.
Moreover, excess or sudden weight loss, slow healing of wounds, frequent infections, numbness, skin darkening, and blurry vision are among other signs and symptoms.
You may also develop a yeast infection, foot pain, or neuropathy if the blood sugar levels are high for a longer period of time.
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Causes of Insulin Resistance
Studies suggest that people with type 2 diabetes shows causes of insulin resistance and are:
Weight: being overweight or obese is one of the major causes of insulin resistance
PCOS: one of the many causes of insulin resistance in polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Autoantibodies: autoantibodies are often produced in blood as a result of the insulin receptor.
Pregnancy: some women may develop this disease as a result of pregnancy.
Hemochromatosis: it is a heredity disease that causes tissue iron accumulation.
Acromegaly: the presence of excess growth hormone in the body can be the cause.
Lipodystrophy: this cause is associated with lipid accumulation in the liver, is often acquired or genetic.
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Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes
The blood sugar levels of a normal person are:
Before taking a meal: 70 to 130mg/100ml
After a meal: less than 180mg/100ml
Before exercise (if taking insulin): 100mg/100ml
Bedtime: 100 to 140mg/100ml
Fasting: less than 100mg/100ml
However, if you notice the above signs and symptoms, and regular changes in blood sugar levels, you should consult your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Certain diagnostic tests can help to diagnose type 2 diabetes. These are:
Random Blood Sugar Test: If the insulin in your blood is200mg/dL or higher levels, then this shows the symptoms of diabetes.
Fasting Blood Sugar Test: After an overnight fast, the blood sugar test indicates:
- Less than 100mg/dL, is considered normal
- 100 to 125mg/dL is considered pre-diabetic.
- 126mg/dL or higher is considered diabetic.
Screening: This test is for people who are older than 45 years of age and includes overweight people younger than age 45, women who had gestational diabetes, pre-diabetic, and those who have a family history.
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You can manage your diabetes by consulting your doctor or healthcare provider and managing to stay in a specific range.
Including foods that are rich in fibers, carbohydrates, corn syrup, fruits and vegetables can help to keep the blood glucose levels in a specific range.
Moreover, eating food at regular intervals, usually, after 2 or 3 hours of a gap, avoiding refined carbs, sweets and animal fats can help.
Regular exercise, aerobic activity, can help to keep your heart healthy and control blood sugar levels as well.
Your doctor can help to recognize the early signs and symptoms of blood sugars.
It is important to note that not everyone will have to use insulin for type 2 diabetes.
If you do, that is because your pancreas is not making enough insulin and it is important for you to take insulin.
Medications for Type 2 Diabetes
When lifestyle changes are not enough to control your blood sugar levels, then your doctor will prescribe your medications to control this type of diabetes.
These medications are:
Metformin: it helps to lower blood glucose levels and improves your body’s response to insulin
Moreover, it is one of the preferred treatments for type 1 diabetes.
Sulfonylureas: an oral medication to help your body make more insulin.
Meglitinides: fast-acting and short-duration medications that stimulate your pancreas to make more insulin
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2: SGLT 2 inhibitors help to prevent the kidneys from reabsorbing glucose into the blood and sending it to the urine.
Glucagon-like peptide-4 inhibitors: GLP-q to slow down digestion and improve glucose levels.
Dipeptide peptidase-4 inhibitors: a mild medication to help reduce blood glucose levels.
Thiazolidinediones: makes your body more sensitive to insulin.
It is important to note that each of these medications has its side effects and your doctor might use a combination of medication to treat it.
In case you develop blood pressure or cholesterol, then you will have to take medications for these as well.
However, if your body is unable to make enough insulin on its own then you will have to take insulin therapy.
Diabetes care includes taking care of diet, regular exercise, and maintaining blood sugar levels.
Diet is an important tool to keep your heart healthy and blood glucose levels in a safe range.
The dietary recommendations for people with type 2 diabetes are the same as any normal person should follow.
It includes eating meals and snacks at a specific time, choosing a variety of foods that are low in calories.
Moreover, avoiding overeating and reading food labels can help avoid nutrients that are harmful to you.
You should also avoid using the following food items and beverages:
- saturated and trans fats
- organ meats like beef or liver
- baked goods
- processed snacks
- sugary drinks
- high-fat dairy products
- pasta and white rice
- processed meat
Moreover, skipping salty and fried food can help to regulate blood sugar levels.
Healthy food for People with Type 2 Diabetes
Healthy carbohydrates can give to fiber and the options are whole fruits, non-starchy vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and sweet potatoes.
Moreover, food rich in omega 3 fatty acids like salmon, sardines, mackerel, cod, and flaxseeds, etc is also beneficial.
Getting healthy monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats from:
- oil like olive oil, canola oil, and peanut oil.
- nuts like almonds, walnuts,
are beneficial for you if you have type 2 diabetes.
Though these options are good and healthy fat, however, they are high in calories.
Therefore, it is important to take them in a moderate amount.
People who have a family history of diabetes can take measures to prevent or delay the development of this type of diabetes.
You can take the following steps:
Losing weight and keeping it off can help prevent or delay diabetes.
Increase your physical activity, eat healthy foods with less fat.
Moreover, you can ask your health care professional about the changes you can make in your lifestyle to prevent or delay this type of diabetes.
You might be at the risk of developing type 2 diabetes if the following factors are present.
Weight: If you are obese or you might be overweight and that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Age: As we get older, especially after 45 years of age we are at the risk of developing diabetes.
Fat distribution: Storing fat in your abdomen area indicates a greater risk.
Family history: The risk of type 2 diabetes increases if either of your parents is diabetic.
PCOS: Having irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth, and obesity, all related to PCOS increases the risk of diabetes.
Pacific Islanders: Studies suggest that the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander community is at particular risk of developing diabetes.
High Blood Pressure: Having high blood pressure can cause or aggravate diabetes
This is due to factors like being overweight and obese, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking.
A Final Word
Maintaining a healthy weight, regular exercise can help keep your blood sugar levels normal. Moreover, if you have a family history of diabetes, then you should especially take care of these factors to reduce the chances of developing it.
However, if you have diabetes, then eating food with whole grains and fiber in it after regular intervals and avoiding carbs and sugar can help to maintain the blood sugar level.